Chris Hedges: Welcome to the Asylum

By Chris Hedges / TruthDig

When civilizations start to die they go insane. Let the ice sheets in the Arctic melt. Let the temperatures rise. Let the air, soil and water be poisoned. Let the forests die. Let the seas be emptied of life. Let one useless war after another be waged. Let the masses be thrust into extreme poverty and left without jobs while the elites, drunk on hedonism, accumulate vast fortunes through exploitation, speculation, fraud and theft. Reality, at the end, gets unplugged. We live in an age when news consists of Snooki’s pregnancy, Hulk Hogan’s sex tape and Kim Kardashian’s denial that she is the naked woman cooking eggs in a photo circulating on the Internet. Politicians, including presidents, appear on late night comedy shows to do gags and they campaign on issues such as creating a moon colony. “[A]t times when the page is turning,” Louis-Ferdinand Celine wrote in “Castle to Castle,” “when History brings all the nuts together, opens its Epic Dance Halls! hats and heads in the whirlwind! Panties overboard!”

The quest by a bankrupt elite in the final days of empire to accumulate greater and greater wealth, as Karl Marx observed, is modern society’s version of primitive fetishism. This quest, as there is less and less to exploit, leads to mounting repression, increased human suffering, a collapse of infrastructure and, finally, collective death. It is the self-deluded, those on Wall Street or among the political elite, those who entertain and inform us, those who lack the capacity to question the lusts that will ensure our self-annihilation, who are held up as exemplars of intelligence, success and progress. The World Health Organization calculates that one in four people in the United States suffers from chronic anxiety, a mood disorder or depression—which seems to me to be a normal reaction to our march toward collective suicide. Welcome to the asylum.

When the most basic elements that sustain life are reduced to a cash product, life has no intrinsic value. The extinguishing of “primitive” societies, those that were defined by animism and mysticism, those that celebrated ambiguity and mystery, those that respected the centrality of the human imagination, removed the only ideological counterweight to a self-devouring capitalist ideology. Those who held on to pre-modern beliefs, such as Native Americans, who structured themselves around a communal life and self-sacrifice rather than hoarding and wage exploitation, could not be accommodated within the ethic of capitalist exploitation, the cult of the self and the lust for imperial expansion. The prosaic was pitted against the allegorical. And as we race toward the collapse of the planet’s ecosystem we must restore this older vision of life if we are to survive.

The war on the Native Americans, like the wars waged by colonialists around the globe, was waged to eradicate not only a people but a competing ethic. The older form of human community was antithetical and hostile to capitalism, the primacy of the technological state and the demands of empire. This struggle between belief systems was not lost on Marx. “The Ethnological Notebooks of Karl Marx” is a series of observations derived from Marx’s reading of works by historians and anthropologists. He took notes about the traditions, practices, social structure, economic systems and beliefs of numerous indigenous cultures targeted for destruction. Marx noted arcane details about the formation of Native American society, but also that “lands [were] owned by the tribes in common, while tenement-houses [were] owned jointly by their occupants.” He wrote of the Aztecs, “Commune tenure of lands; Life in large households composed of a number of related families.” He went on, “… reasons for believing they practiced communism in living in the household.” Native Americans, especially the Iroquois, provided the governing model for the union of the American colonies, and also proved vital to Marx and Engel’s vision of communism.

Marx, though he placed a naive faith in the power of the state to create his workers’ utopia and discounted important social and cultural forces outside of economics, was acutely aware that something essential to human dignity and independence had been lost with the destruction of pre-modern societies. The Iroquois Council of the Gens, where Indians came together to be heard as ancient Athenians did, was, Marx noted, a “democratic assembly where every adult male and female member had a voice upon all questions brought before it.” Marx lauded the active participation of women in tribal affairs, writing, “The women [were] allowed to express their wishes and opinions through an orator of their own election. Decision given by the Council. Unanimity was a fundamental law of its action among the Iroquois.” European women on the Continent and in the colonies had no equivalent power.

Rebuilding this older vision of community, one based on cooperation rather than exploitation, will be as important to our survival as changing our patterns of consumption, growing food locally and ending our dependence on fossil fuels. The pre-modern societies of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse—although they were not always idyllic and performed acts of cruelty including the mutilation, torture and execution of captives—did not subordinate the sacred to the technical. The deities they worshipped were not outside of or separate from nature.

Seventeenth century European philosophy and the Enlightenment, meanwhile, exalted the separation of human beings from the natural world, a belief also embraced by the Bible. The natural world, along with those pre-modern cultures that lived in harmony with it, was seen by the industrial society of the Enlightenment as worthy only of exploitation. Descartes argued, for example, that the fullest exploitation of matter to any use was the duty of humankind. The wilderness became, in the religious language of the Puritans, satanic. It had to be Christianized and subdued. The implantation of the technical order resulted, as Richard Slotkin writes in “Regeneration Through Violence,” in the primacy of “the western man-on-the-make, the speculator, and the wildcat banker.” Davy Crockett and, later, George Armstrong Custer, Slotkin notes, became “national heroes by defining national aspiration in terms of so many bears destroyed, so much land preempted, so many trees hacked down, so many Indians and Mexicans dead in the dust.”

The demented project of endless capitalist expansion, profligate consumption, senseless exploitation and industrial growth is now imploding. Corporate hustlers are as blind to the ramifications of their self-destructive fury as were Custer, the gold speculators and the railroad magnates. They seized Indian land, killed off its inhabitants, slaughtered the buffalo herds and cut down the forests. Their heirs wage war throughout the Middle East, pollute the seas and water systems, foul the air and soil and gamble with commodities as half the globe sinks into abject poverty and misery. The Book of Revelation defines this single-minded drive for profit as handing over authority to the “beast.”

The conflation of technological advancement with human progress leads to self-worship. Reason makes possible the calculations, science and technological advances of industrial civilization, but reason does not connect us with the forces of life. A society that loses the capacity for the sacred, that lacks the power of human imagination, that cannot practice empathy, ultimately ensures its own destruction. The Native Americans understood there are powers and forces we can never control and must honor. They knew, as did the ancient Greeks, that hubris is the deadliest curse of the human race. This is a lesson that we will probably have to learn for ourselves at the cost of tremendous suffering.

In William Shakespeare’s “The Tempest,” Prospero is stranded on an island where he becomes the undisputed lord and master. He enslaves the primitive “monster” Caliban. He employs the magical sources of power embodied in the spirit Ariel, who is of fire and air. The forces unleashed in the island’s wilderness, Shakespeare knew, could prompt us to good if we had the capacity for self-control and reverence. But it also could push us toward monstrous evil since there are few constraints to thwart plunder, rape, murder, greed and power. Later, Joseph Conrad, in his portraits of the outposts of empire, also would expose the same intoxication with barbarity.

The anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan, who in 1846 was “adopted” by the Seneca, one of the tribes belonging to the Iroquois confederation, wrote in “Ancient Society” about social evolution among American Indians. Marx noted approvingly, in his “Ethnological Notebooks,” Morgan’s insistence on the historical and social importance of “imagination, that great faculty so largely contributing to the elevation of mankind.” Imagination, as the Shakespearean scholar Harold C. Goddard pointed out, “is neither the language of nature nor the language of man, but both at once, the medium of communion between the two. … Imagination is the elemental speech in all senses, the first and the last, of primitive man and of the poets.”

All that concerns itself with beauty and truth, with those forces that have the power to transform us, are being steadily extinguished by our corporate state. Art. Education. Literature. Music. Theater. Dance. Poetry. Philosophy. Religion. Journalism. None of these disciplines are worthy in the corporate state of support or compensation. These are pursuits that, even in our universities, are condemned as impractical. But it is only through the impractical, through that which can empower our imagination, that we will be rescued as a species. The prosaic world of news events, the collection of scientific and factual data, stock market statistics and the sterile recording of deeds as history do not permit us to understand the elemental speech of imagination. We will never penetrate the mystery of creation, or the meaning of existence, if we do not recover this older language. Poetry shows a man his soul, Goddard wrote, “as a looking glass does his face.” And it is our souls that the culture of imperialism, business and technology seeks to crush. Walter Benjamin argued that capitalism is not only a formation “conditioned by religion,” but is an “essentially religious phenomenon,” albeit one that no longer seeks to connect humans with the mysterious forces of life. Capitalism, as Benjamin observed, called on human societies to embark on a ceaseless and futile quest for money and goods. This quest, he warned, perpetuates a culture dominated by guilt, a sense of inadequacy and self-loathing. It enslaves nearly all its adherents through wages, subservience to the commodity culture and debt peonage. The suffering visited on Native Americans, once Western expansion was complete, was soon endured by others, in Cuba, the Philippines, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. The final chapter of this sad experiment in human history will see us sacrificed as those on the outer reaches of empire were sacrificed. There is a kind of justice to this. We profited as a nation from this demented vision, we remained passive and silent when we should have denounced the crimes committed in our name, and now that the game is up we all go down together.

From TruthDig:

2 thoughts on “Chris Hedges: Welcome to the Asylum”

  1. I am wondering here, that yes, there is an enormous theological divide between humans belonging to nature directly, and being ‘in dominion’ of it in the bible-yet, isn’t there a much more responsible lilt within the bible than in other cultures- esp. in contemplating the times of it’s recording in the final stages of the BC era? I mean, even in the ‘formation story’, Humanity comes last, they’re in the centre of it all- ie, according to ancient thought, that would mean they were least among them, which is the opposite comminication of Genesis, which is that humanity has a duty to all those things that ‘came first’- they are responsible to it. As well as, since this article is primarily, it would seem dedicated to justice and imagination- how are the books of the prophets- which would be most accurately described as Activist leaders memoirs/manifestos promoting a separation from nature? The Entire book of Isaiah creates a parallel with out own modern recession, as in that time, Isaiah is directly speaking out against those who ‘see pretty fields, try and buy them from the owners, are turned down and then evict and/or murder their refusers and take the land.’ Which mirrors the mortgage scandal that exploded in 2008. Secondly, other prophets demonstrate exacting imagination in their proclamations- barring the supernatural, they are as Jon Ralston Saul would describe it ‘able to expertly imagine reality correctly’, which is an enormous distinction with false prophets, who oh, say today tell people what they want to hear so they can lure them on the promise of false profits- so I am confused, what embrace the bible has regarding these Enlightenment ideals, in fact, most of what I have read about israel, is that they were a prosaic culture- when they did things correctly and acknowledged the land and themselves as but one part of the cosmic perspective- obviously perverted, but the bible is an appeal against that perversion from stem to stern- and it does not hide from the absolute grotesquery of human viciousness and evil- which I know Mr. Hedges always extols is a problem we must deal with inside ourselves- is not the bible a document confronting us to do so- albeit as all historical records striving to be responsible, from their perspective should?

    Secondly, I wish you would specify the form of religion capitalism harnesses and ultimately becomes- the Cult of Des Pater. There is a very important distinction, as all social justice movements of any mild success, deflecting wealth and striving, if not for peace then for freedom, from Spartacus to Dr. King have harnessed a positive, or counter religion to the Capitalist god of Wealth and Death- Ghandi, the Dhalai Llama, Dr. King, Malcolm X, Desmund Tutu, Nelson Mendella, Mother Theresa these are all men and a woman of justice, who arguably have had the greatest and most successful impact on our times, all of them whose greatest strength came from the fuel of their Dieta Obsculta- the way they listened to life, which for them, grew out of their religious commitments- and look what they accomplished- it is important to distinct that difference of religion- that distinction, not Christian whatsoever, but the need for the right kind of connected religion against the Des Pater and his disciples is exactly why, while rallying and protesting and activating, the street level movements are unable to branch out rationally extend themselves to all demographics with genuine persuasion and decisively denounce rabble rousers- because they have no unifying belief that is stronger than their pain and suffering- they have nothing that honestly reinforces the merit and tenacity of their cause and they will slip into horrible despair in the worst pagantile style of events as time goes on, civil war, and daring hopeless sorties, if they can stick it out and do not soon resign to dying hungry at home or in prison. In fact, the dependence upon the Native American Aboriginal peoples for our survival in their ways of life, and their philosophy is exactly that kind of appeal, for good religion, of the people able to adapt and endure… I believe these facts, though I understand the limitations of writing an article in terms of clarity and space, are irresponsible to describe without the time and energy able to explain them.

  2. Good as usual from Chris Hedges. A few things things: the Aztecs were rather bloodthirsty;the Mayan elites brought about their destruction through warfare; the Taino/Arawak somewhat depleted the resource base of the Amazon basin–forcing the younger ones to sail up the chain of Caribbean islands in 1000 CE or so. But, nothing like the A bomb or monopoly finance capitalism. As for the Iroquois–absolutely marvelous culture Re:Great Law of Peace/Confederacy.

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